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Emotions refer to complex psychological and physiological states that arise in response to stimuli, thoughts, or experiences, and they play a fundamental role in human and animal behaviour. They are subjective experiences characterized by a range of feelings, such as joy, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust. 

Emotions involve a combination of physiological changes, cognitive processes, and behavioural responses. Physiologically, emotions are often accompanied by changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and various other bodily functions. Cognitive processes involve interpreting and evaluating emotional stimuli or events, which can influence the intensity and nature of the emotional experience. Behavioural responses can include facial expressions, body language, verbal expressions, and actions, all of which can be influenced by the emotional state. 

Emotions serve several functions in human life. They provide individuals with information about their internal states and the external environment, guiding decision-making processes and influencing behaviour. Emotions can also facilitate social interactions, as they allow individuals to convey their feelings to others, understand the emotions of others, and establish empathetic connections. 

While emotions are universal experiences, their specific manifestations, interpretations, and cultural expressions can vary across individuals and societies. Research in the field of psychology continues to explore the intricacies of emotions, including their underlying neural mechanisms, development across the lifespan, and their impact on mental and physical well-being. 

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